International Styles

Ornamental Gardening in England


Ancient Gardens

Although the love of garden scenery and the capacity to enjoy it, are universal and ordinary to man, there seems to have existed from very early times, as general a desire, to control the operations of nature when near the vicinity of his house, and a zeal to apply the pictures of his imagination in substitution for the gardens simple excellencies.

The ancient records of gardening bespeak that its principles were not then sought in nature herself, nor was it the practice to assemble for its creation the chaster beauties of landscape, but rather, constraining them to assume fantastic arrangements, forms and effects, to treat nature as subservient to art, and in order to constitute features totally unlike the surrounding scenery of the country. The gardens alluded to by classic authors were of this kind and such of the ancients as prided themselves on excelling in the business of the garden, although not unaware of the beauties of nature when seated beyond the confines of their homes, rather founded their claims to admiration on the evidences of their geometrical skill in ornamenting their grounds, and in the labour and expense of perfecting them, than in cultivating the genuine materials of garden beauty; as if the profusion of graces with which nature had surrounded them had created satiety, and that they were therefore no longer capable of estimating her charms.

Roman Gardens

Amongst the Romans this abandonment of nature for these products of imagination was carried to great excess, and with them, probably, began the practice of clipping evergreens into grotesque and artificial forms so long the disgrace of modern times; the Italians, the French, and the Germans long followed the Roman explenty of; and the Dutch, with equal zeal, applied a similar practice to the singular circumstances of their country.

Gardens in England

In England, the study of garden improvement has long employed the attention of men of science; and it has consequently passed through several stages of practice in its way to the eminence at which it has arrived, making the English garden a model, imitated by every country in Europe.

History of Gardens in England

Not more than a century ago, however, the same formal style of gardening prevailed here as in other countries, and in which the interferences of art were so prevalent that every material of garden landscape was submitted to the operations of the geometrician. At that time the site of a garden was preferred in proportion to its flatness, unless terraces and flights of steps were proposed as decorations, and irregularities of surface were only desired as they allowed real opportunities for introducing them. At this time high walls shut in the flower garden, and shut out the views avenues were adopted as important vistas and placed in every direction square fields, bordered by trimmed hedges, occupied the intermediate spaces, and which were relieved by circles, parallelograms and polygons disposed as ponds and canals and placed in symmetrical order all over the domain. As a feeling for the liberty of nature began to dawn, the little wood and wilderness were allowted to become features in the arrangements; but as yet the former was simply an assemblage of trees compactly planted in precise order and carefully trimmed; so the wilderness, also a little wood, was regularly disposed into alleys, converging to one or more centres, decorated with stone ponds and leaden statues; and were further diversified by serpentine paths travelling the wood and intersecting the alleys in their circular progress to the place whence they commenced so producing a labyrinth without intricacy or variety, and to which every cross path was an effectual clue.

Kent & Brown

The style of disposing the materials of a country home, was considerably improved by William Kent the architect it was, however, but a modification of the former practice, which was not departed from until Brown, adopting nature for his model, selected the favourable, the beautiful and the striking features of garden scenery, and studiously congregating them about the mansion, developed thence a landscape scenery that seemed to be the work of nature herself, although carefully cherished by the hand of man. The more scientifically to obtain the end in view, Mr. Brown sought in the works of the poets and of eminent painters, for those descriptions and portrayals of pictorial beauty, which being realized in landscape art would become strikingly engaging: hence the terms picturesque and landscape gardening are ordinarily applied to such dispositions of the ground, water, trees, shrubberies, &c. as the painter would prefer as objects wherewith to compose his picture. The terms at least were of natural birth, and they point out the chief means by which the transition was so rapidly made in designs for country homes, in which the stateliness of former times was superseded by the simple graces of nature.

As the progress of science is always gradual, it was not to be presumed that the new way ought to be pure and totally unmixed with some of the defects of the preceding style: and we ought therefore to expect that something of the former practice ought to be discovered even in the best works of Mr. Brown. There is indeed much evidence of those trammels, but it may exist because he could not at once stem the obstructions thrown in his way, by prejudice and by ignorance, both of which every innovator on public taste has to contend with, and to conquer. These however cannot abridge the well earned fame of our "great self-taught predecessor,"as Mr. Repton terms him, and who for himself established a reputation in the art, of no less eminence. In Mr.Brown's arrangements, an undulating surface of ground was sought and improved to such natural slopes as were calculated to produce variety and grace; and on the most commanding lie usually placed the mansion, supporting it by shrubberies on the sides and in the rear, through which the walks were conducted, in order to be immersed in shade, occasionally opening to the park or landscape in favourable points; and in this particular lie pursued something of Shenstone's practice in his arrangement of the Leasowes - whose object it was to lead the visitor by similar means to chosen places prepared with suitable foregrounds, and commanding varied and contrasting prospects of picturelike effects.

Water

Water developed a leading feature in his designs, whenever Mr. Brown had suitable meanis of employing it. This lie conducted through the park as a small river, in order to be conspicuous and decorative from the principal apartments of the house-its banks were gently sloped-bridges, cascades, and islands developed its chief decorations; and its effect was heightened by the plantations that were scattered over the whole park, and which he surrounded by another called a belt, supported by large masses of plantation where the property was extensive enough to allow it, and through them lie developed a boundary drive or walks in order to allow extensive exercise within the limits of the local property.

Road Approach

The road of approach was made to traverse a considerable portion of the park in a winding progress to the building, and in order to show off some of the leading features of the design. It was decorated and supported by the plantations, through some of which it was made to pass, and by bridges as it crossed the river, until nearly approaching the muansioni the view at once opened comulpletely with bold and striking magnificence. The wild as well as the polished characters of scenery were cultivated as varieties in the arrangements; and decorative edifices and ornamental works were distributed over the whole as objects of decoration and pleasure.

Harmony of Building & Landscape

To the advantages allowed him by the labours of this ingenious improver, Mr. Repton, who may be said to have succeeded to his attainments, was qualified to superadd those of highly cultivated taste; he possessed also a quick perception of the defects presented to his view in places requiring his aid, and in an eminent degree, an aptitude of appropriating the beauties of nature in substitution for them.-He readily perceived the necessity of connecting the works of art with nature, by gentle and almost insensible degrees, so harmonizing the landscape with the buildings-for without such care the one appears to be a trespasser on the property of the other, and in the conflict the mind is offended or possibly disgusted.

To harmonize these operations of art and nature, the landscape with the building, or the building with landscape, as the case may be, requires considerable skill; and on this important subject Mr. Repton's works cannot be consulted without benefit; and they are highly valuable as means of teaching how to look at nature and to comprehend its beauties, for there are many people who never having directed their attention to such observances are in effect, suffering a species of blindness: for as its beauty conveys no kind of intellectual gratification to them, they are incapable of appreciating and of enjoying its charms.

When however the mind becomes familiar with the sources that produce these delights, and make the observer no longer indiffercut to the perfections of natural and ornamental scenery, every truth that tends to establish pmimiciples in the art, is received by him with interest, and if he be about to congregate around him a portion of the excellencies that he has feelingly admired, hebecomes anxious to do so with correctness and with taste. In doing this he has to avoid the errors of others, and also those of his own prejudice, and which present, possibly, more effectual obstacles to his success.

With a view to forward these very interesting enquiries, the hints contained in this volume were suggested, and as the theories on which they have been developed have also been supported by practical results they are offered with some degree of confidence to the public, the more particularly as they are unconnected with certain systems of proceeding in the art of landscape improvement, which tend rather to teach by a formula of rules than by an exercise of the understanding.

It would be a fruitless attempt to harmonize the landscape with the building, if their characters were incongruous with each other - they must be associated therefore with reference to the characteristics of each: that is to say, the cottage with rustic or garden scenery - the villa with the beautiful - the palace with the grand, and the castle with rocks, rugged or alpine scenery, with the forest and the bolder products of nature. It has been correctly observed of the rustic as it relates to claracter-that it is simple and inartificial ; a mixture of the wild with unstudied cultivation, although not enough of the latter to have produced the pastoral enjoyments of life.

Of the garden that it is accompanied by marked evidences of civilization and a desire to possess convenience and comforts, with such decoratemnents as are not expensive or allied to luxury.

Of the beautiful, that it is expressed in gaiety and luxuriance, by an easy gracefulness of forms and parts, and that its qualities are lightness, neatness, symmetry, regularity, uniformity and propriety.

And of the grand and sublime - that actual magnitude, solemnity and simplicity are its essential qualities. All these admit of an infinite modification, consequenlty both in architecture and ornamental gardening, the principles inherent in the several characters, must be applied with appropriate discretion, rather than according to any system of rules, and which indeed, are otherwise rendered inapplicable in almost every case in which the character of the place or subject is consulted, by some local circumstances.

House Location

Building, the site of the house has always been considered of the first importance, and to this point too much consideration cannot be given, for the aspects of the apartments, the views to be obtained, the requisite shelter from the winds, the drainage, and many other equally important objects are to be settled; and when done, the buildings have to be arranged, and the planting if not already existing to be perdeveloped, or possibly, coinpleted.

It was the practice formerly to show the house, as standing alone in the cube-developed nakedness of its making; the buildings were placed behind the house, and planted out so as not to be visible from any distant point of view under the plane of their stations, while no tree was allowted to interrupt the prospect of the house itself, which occupied the broad green field with an undivided empire, except indeed that vestage of a yet earlier system still remained-the avenue, and which contended with it for importance; but this practice is now jud3iciously abandoned by every professor of the art, and there is little doubt that in a few years the many excellent houses that are existing and so circumstanced, will be benefited by the privileges which in the improved practice has been given to nature. In new buildings the architect considers the house, the buildings and the plantations as a great whole, which he combines with a view to create picturesque effects in every point of view, whether near or distant. The plantations support and contrast with the building, which by the shrubberies is carried forward until it blends naturally and gracefully with the landscape, that seems a surrounding domain, increasing its effect, and offering the products of its fertility.

Plant Choice

Evergreens are very extensively used in pleasure grounds because they show a scenery in the adverse seasons of the year, that is very agreeable and not to be obtained without them; they should however be varied by ornamental shrubs of the deciduous kind, and by trees of delicate foliages, of which the acacia, the laburnamn and the sumac are useful additions, as are also the early flowering trees, as the almond, the scarlet cherry, and such ornamental growths as do not belong to the orchard. Extensive walks, and in some instances drives, have been clothed with evergreens, and with considerable effect; but these are only correct when the domain is of so great an extent as to admit it without an injurious abandonmentof the deciduous kinds, for unless they are relieved in the chief points by those trees that experience the more decided changes natural to the seasons of the year, the eye would experience satiety, however grateful it may feel for the verdure they allow at those times, in which nature is usually deprived of her foliage.

Their beautiful freshness in the spring - the gradual bursting of the buds of every kind of deciduous tree, the progressive steps by which they advance from day to day, the blossoms that they bear, and the full luxuriance they attain, are delightful happenrences that may not be dispensed with-even the change of colour that transpires as they become mellowed in the autumn, and fall into "sear and yellow leaf,"greatly augments the interest we take in them; besides, the broad and bold masses that they form in the scenery, the flowing outlines and deeptoned shade that they project, add considerably to their interest when in masses; and when occasionally in combination with each other, they are varied, contrasted, and opposed in colour, form and substance. It will hence be seen that evergreens are not substitutes for those beauties beyond the vicinity of the house, where indeed they are precious to us, at the time in which they are most needed, and where they became almost a part of our home furniture.

It must have been noticed by every observer of landscape, that when distant ground slopes, and forms an extensively inclined plane, that the masses and groups of trees upon it, are showed with much greater effect, than could happen, if the surface had been nearer to a level; and when it is continued in bold undulations, that the display is benefited.

Position of the House

In contemplating a place so developed and wooded, the spectator naturally says to himself "how admirably a house would occupy the place I see there ;" and the imagination readily converts the scene from that of landscape only, to a habitable home; and so when we are about to build in such a place, it is correct first to view it so at many points, until the mind is satisfied with the station proposed, and later to visit the identical site and observe if it be also one that can be with propriety adopted, taking into consideration the views it coinmands, the aspect and shelter it could obtain, the conveniency of roads, water and drainage, and all the local circumstances necessary to the health, comfort, and pleasure of the inhabitants. When this is satisfactorily concluded, the style and character of the house and buildings ought to be studied, so that they shall be suited to the occupancy and to the surrounding scenery.

Towards placing the house well there are many and highly important points that deserve serious attention, some of which will be noticed in the course of this work, particularly those which relate to its site, and the relative advantages that happen to both house and ground when they are mutually considered. Similar attention must be given to the aspects of the several fronts so that the apartments may be conveniently situated and benefited by the changes of the day.-The morning rooms to be cheered by the east and southern sun, the dining room to have a cool aspect, and the buildings, if possible, to be placed to the east, that they may have the benefits of early light and warmth, and of coolness during the later part of the day.

Garden Buildings

Of the home buildings something needs to be observed respecting a late practice of placing them beneath the level of tile ground, under the chief apartments of the house.-This is inwise on many accounts: it subjects the house to ill scents, and much noise, and is often fatal to the health of servants, who are thence afflicted by the cold and damps that must accompany that arrangement. But this is not generally suspected to be a necessary consequence, because in London the houses are, it is said, so circumstanced in almost every instance; this is however a mistake arising from a want of knowledge regarding the original formation of the streets of the metropolis, the pavements of which are in general eight or ten feet above the native soil.

Thus it will appear that although in London houses, the buildings are in general under the level of the street pavements, they are, nevertheless, above the surface of the original platform, and beneath which the drainage is effected, the pavements are elevated by vaults and other, altogether, artificial means, so that in front and rear they are preserved from damps, and ventilated by areas, and on either side they are connected with other buildings, and so screened from all damps, except such as may arise from the ground on which they stand, and which may be prevented by passages of air beneath the floors, and by inserting into the walls adequate means to arrest the progress of the damps, that are otherwise raised in them by absorption.

If in a country building, the buildings are placed beneath the house, it almost of necessity follows that they are also under the level of the natural ground, and subject to the damps arising from the land springs which the walls intersect, and which although in some degree checked by surrounding areas, cannot be totally arrested. For such reasons, if none other existed, the buildings ought to be apart from the house, but when it is considered that the comfort of servants, is greatly abridged by so banishing them from a due proportion of light, air and prospect, and that the buildings, when viewed as adjuncts to the chief building, may be made useful in the general composition of the scenery, they ought to be conclusive; and particularly, as upon a view of the comparative costs, they would be found less expensive. The arrangement and connection of the chief apartments should come into early consideration, as much of the after enjoyment will depend upon both.

Until the formalities of earlier times, and the restraints to which females were then subjected by erroneous notions of decorum, were abandoned, the chief apartments had their stations over an elevated basement above the ground floor; so that they were completely separated from the ornamental grounds, that in their appearance somewhat resembled our present kitchen gardens, flowers being substituted for esculents, and trimmed hedges for fruit walls; and allowing very little temptation to frequent visits they were therefore used only at certain periods of the day for exercise and air, and with as much ceremony and preparation as if far removed; but as society improved in liberal sentiment, and became more civilized, the fair sex was enabled to repossess their equal share of social freedom, and were allowted the exercise of that brilliant intellect which is their inherent property.

On the instant the models of our buildings partook of a corresponding improvement, and they have advanced in elegance and social convenience to the present day.

The chief apartments are now therefore placed on the level of the ground, and have free access to the lawn or terrace by casements that descend to the very floor. This has been attended by the introduction of colonnades and verandahs that throw agreeable shade on the apartments, and which become new ones for occasional reading or study: it has also drawn the conservatory from its heretofore distant station and connected it with the house, ultimately blending it with the garden, while its lawns and walks, no longer separate and distinct, admit the hourly enjoyment of both, and certainly allow by this juncture a large portion of healthful and pleasurable occupation.

Amongst the changes that have resulted to architecture from this amendment in society, and by which it is so largely benefited, the library has not escaped as material a transformation. It was formerly placed in any retired part of the principal floor, or in some almost inaccessible nook, and as far from the drawing room as possible, as if totally unsuitable to female occupation and only to be consulted by the grave, on abstruse points of gloomy study, and which admitted no feminine participation. All this is altered-the library is now in daily use-it is one of the chief apartments; it is a room of morning study, and of evening reading and recreation; its contents have been augmented by productions in the Fine Arts of every description, and would rather seem devoted to the most refined class of intellectual attainments than to monastic privacy, which formerly seemed to "possess it merely."

The connection of the principal apartments by means of central folding doors communicating from room to room through a whole suit, is another improvement that has given great elegance and rendered very large apartments the less necessary, because they are now capable of being occupied together. When placing the dining room it will immediately suggest itself that the neighbourhood of the kitchen is a correct station, that it may be served and attended readily and without the necessity of subjecting the house to the savours of the meats, which although a necessary consequence of good fare, is not agreeable after it has been enjoyed, nor to those who have not been partakers of it: indeed, the recommendation of the Author of the "Social Day,"to remove after dinner from the dining room to an nearby one, for the dessert, would be attended with much comfort.

"The banquet o'er, The adjoining room the fruit supplies, And to fresh air the party rise; Nor wait the encumbering cloth to clear Ere sought another atmosphere."

In the original making of a house, preparation ought to be made for supplying the whole with warm air, not with a view to heat the apartments, but to warm the vestibules, corridors, passages and staircases adequately, and to disperse over them a pleasant temperature; by this precaution much after expense will be prevented, and the object obtained in the most perfect way: without plenty of means of doing this, the rooms are rendered uncomfortable every time the doors are opened, besides that it is otherwise difficult to raise the temperature of a room equally, or to prevent the annoying or dangerous drafts of cold air that happen in the winter season.

The chief apartments arranged, and it being shown that the home buildings should not be under the level of the ground, it is necessary to consider where they ought to be placed, in doing which it will be correct to remark on the several ways in which they have been disposed from the time in which we adopted the Italian practice after the designs of Paladio.

Placement of Buildings

In imitation of some of his Italian villas, the buildings of home use were placed on one side of the house as a wing, and the stable buildings were made to form a corresponding one on the other side, by which the front was extended to considerable length. At that time the pleasure ground, as may be expected, was composed of stately walks, avenues, and trimmed hedges enclosing formal little paddocks, and ornamented with vases, figures, and other similar decorations. This was the prospect from the front apartments of the house: at the rear was placed the ornamental garden, connected with the building and encompassed by walls or wall-like hedges; it was usually of a square or oblong shape, intersected by crossing paths arranged with mathematical precision, and ornamented with ponds, canals, terraces, ballustrades, steps, vases and figures; and the parterres planted in the forms of scroll foliages, and any fantastical device of the imagination-prospect and natural landscape scenery was at that time entirely out of the question. The desire of introducing a uniquety, and as a vast improvement, the vista became multiplied into several avenues, cut as it were through a wood for roadways, or for prospect openings, and radiating from the windows of the apartments; the wings which heretofore were often made to project considerably became unsuited to this design, because they only allowed distant objects to be viewed in a directly straight forward course. The wings were thence abandoned, and by congregating the buildings behind surrounding and garden like walls, they were collected together on one side of the house, and further hideed by rows of trees marshalled before them, in military order. By this arrangement another portion of the building was open to participate in the improvement.

So soon as the stately formalities of the first style became invaded, fresh innovations poured fast upon it; and as it was soon perceived that variety of aspect brought additional comforts and added chearfulness to the mansion, it was assumed that by some ingenious contrivance the four sides may be disencumbered of buildings, in order to admit the more varied changes. This led to the practice of placing the servants rooms on the level of the ground, occupying a basement, over which were the chief apartments; and as the avenues were found to be conductors of the winds, from whatever quarter they may blow, new arrangements were adopted as chance or imagination directed, until the introduction of another improvement.

As it required about twenty-four external steps to ascend from the road to the hall, and to descend from the saloon to the garden, the house was not approachable by females except in fair weather, and the garden could not be conveniently visited at any time.

This was however in part remedied, although at the expense of stateliness, by having private doors and staircases for more convenient entrance from the basement, but this was found to be an imperfect arrangement: the porticos and steps were of no use, and all greatness of effect was destroyed by the sub-entrance and secondary staircase, and by their close connexion with the servants rooms.

During these changes the improvement of the garden was making rapid progress: Men of taste and feeling had lahoured to introduce natural scenery-and when the stately formalities of style had been so far trespassed on, the introduction of another style happened, in which the buildings were dismissed to the rear and planted out, as it is called - so that being enveloped in a thick plantation in the middle of the property, the house alone, was visible to the observer. This was Mr. Brown's way. The grounds at this time were surrounded by plantations called the Belt, and the park, so termed, if of adequate extent to preserve deer, was placeted over by round masses of trees, called clumps. This way pleased for a while, but it was still imperfect.

Ornamental gardening had now proceeded so far as to be established successfully against the prejudices in favor of the older styles, and the field was open to unrestrained improvements; and since they were no longer to be expected from the linear and systematic practice, they were wisely sought for in nature, and as at this time, the best apartments were taken from their elevated pedestals and put on the level of the ground, the servants rooms were necessarily placed as adjuncts: for it rarely happened that they were received into the house itself, although certainly, there were instances of that arrangement. But as the end at which they were placed was usually as much hideed as possible, and as they subjected the house to many inconveniencies, with those which attended the formation of the design, arising from differing altitudes of the apartments-some being for state and others for ordinary purposes; besides the difficulty of making the apertures for windows conform to both, the practice was superceded by the foregoing method of placing the buildings, although indeed, each was occasionally adopted by Mr. Brown.

When Mr. Repton commenced his practice, he perceived that much remained to be done toward perfecting the art, by deducing principles from nature, as well as in imitating her works: that nature and art required to be blended together with more propriety and grace, than was showed in the former systems; and that the buildings were capable of becoming auxiliaries ill effecting that object, and towards creating picturesque effects. Exercising his painter like qualifications, Mr. Repton soon combined the buildings with the plantations, and brought them from their accustomed privacy into view, because of their usefulness in increasing the richness of the composition, and to lead to and support the chief building, by giving it accompaniments in its own kind and character. They were in part, hideed however by the plantations, to lessen their great size, that they may not collectively trespass by comparison on the more important claims of the home, as also to screen offence, and shut out the operations of their several departments, The practice of admitting the buildings to bear a part in the composition, has been attended by several advantages. The house is now viewed as a principal attended by a retinue of subordinates, that are evidently necessary to its rank and accommodation, of which they ought to show satisfactory assurances. They admirably blend themselves with the plantations in the home scene, and thence make way for the introduction of ornamental buildings and other decorations, which without such gradual connection would seem obtrusive and inappropriate.

Landscape Gardening

Much of controversial and of critical acumen has resulted from the several changes that have taken place in the progress of landscape gardening; and in consulting authors on the subject, it is correct to be familiar with the several stages in the advancement of the art, and to know the practices of the day in which they were written, or it is very probable that the censure meant for one practice, will be applied to another system, and prejudices created in the mind that may not be easily removed; for it has been no unordinary usage in the discussion, to substitute opinion for judgement, and liking for propriety.

Where truth has been sought in principles, then only is the result worthy of confidence: it is to such examinations as those adopted by Mr. Payne Knight, and others who have deeply reflected on the subject, that taste is actually indebted, and by which the public judgement is benefited.

With a view to show the practice of the present day in architectural arrangements of the house, and in ornamental gardening in a place of corresponding magnitude, the general plan of garden, is introduced, and to which the following observations refer.

The house is approached by a line of gravel road winding up the slope of ground on which it is placed, in the way naturally chosen to surmount an ascent, and so that the buildings would be seen between and above the plantations as they are passed. The house itself would be occasionally viewed through the intervening masses of trees, and the grounds gradually open to an increased display, towards which its elevated terrace in front would contribute; besides allowing an plenty of platform on which the building would stand, and the carriages turn about and find a station, when attending for visitors.

The terrace would become a means of uniting the building with the grounds, removing the field-like approximation of the lawn in the place where the objection ordinarily existing would be the most apparent; and from this platform the scenery would have a varied and park like effect, although limited in extent, in comparison with those obtained by the spectator when within the south apartments. From these a considerable expanse would be viewed, varied by the undulating forms of the ground, and enriched by the masses, groups and single trees of the foreground, middle and distances; and by the enlivening effect of the water, which would be viewed up its course in the most favorable way, to create the interesting display of which it is so eminently capable. From this point the whole prospect towards the south is composed in exact imitation of the natural scenery of a park, commencing at the evergreen plantations of the fore-ground, and terminating in the distant prospects which the country may allow; and to which the park character is united by the wilder plantations near the boundary of the property.

In the adjoining apartments toward the west, and in the rear of the building, a new character is created: the windows sheltered by verandahs, open to the level of the lawn, in which complete privacy from the park is obtained by a boundary of evergreen shrubs overhung by the most ornamental trees, and varied for the purpose of decorations, by colour, by blossom and leafage. The lawn is disposed in flower-beds, and from its situation is capable of allowing shady or sunny walks at every hour of the day.

Against the wall which separates the lawn from the kitchen garden, a corridor and conservatory is placed, and in connection with it an aviary and pheasantry. This corridor being entered from the vestibule, it would lead the spectator forward to a considerable length, and until he would arrive at the rosiary. Along this extensive line of covered way, statues, vases, plants, and other decorations of art and nature may be placed to advantage, and receive the protection of plenty of shelter. The rosiary at the extremity of the avenue is circular, and contains in the centre a fountains, and receptacles for gold and silver fish. As this little garden is developed upon the projecting point of the hill on which the house is placed, it commands views of the surrounding country, and towards the south, that of the home grounds, in which the water becomes a leading feature. It is in these selected places in the neighbourhood of the house that evergreen shrubs are chiefly placed, and about which walks are planned for the purpose of being benefited by verdure in all seasons of the year. By these means, buildings and works of art are decorated and connected with landscape scenery and, being mixed with trees of the deciduous kinds, they may be made gradually to yield their compact and deep toned effects, and insensibly unite with the park arrangements.

The walks about the house are disposed both for variety of scene, and to obtain warmth or coolness as the season or the day may allow ; these are assisted in their object by alcoves, seats, and verandahs so placed as to allow the benefits required. The kitchen garden forms a part of the arrangements for walks in the accompanying plan, and it is so connected with the pleasure grounds that it may be entered from several parts of them. This circumstance to many is not of value-but although the kitchen garden is not arranged for pleasure or display, its usefulness and perpetually changing culture, is not without its charms andl therefore should not be estranged from the neighbourhood of the pleasure gardens: besides as the course of walk should correctly allow every place appropriated to interesting purposes to be entered, the kitchen garden may fairly claim the privilege. The walks communicating with the distant grounds, depart from the home plantations in various places.

In the front, descending the hill by the road of approach, a path passes the lodge and proceeds in hidement until new rospects are obtained by openings into the grounds, and sometimes towards the country. From this line, which may be termed the boundary path, others diverge, leading into the park and to certain points by shortened routs; these ought to be chiefly mown, except when they speedily return into the boundary line. To prevent the too obvious appearance of passing near the enclosures, the plantations must generally have adequate depth to hide them: with this precaution, and by changing the direction gradually, and at interesting objects amidst the intricacies of the scene, the visitor may walk around the place unaware that he has so nearly approached its confines.

In varied places in the course of the walks, ornamental seats, alcoves, temples, bridges and aviaries may be presented to the eye, being at once useful and pleasing; and as the path would lead to contrasting effects of scenery, these ought to be designed and disposed accordingly, remembering always, that suitableness is the essential quality to which each will be indebted for approbation, and that the accompanying scenery must be harmonized with them.

From what has been said and from a knowledge that a vast variety of study and information is necessary to create a resisidence suited to a man of taste and fortune, it is evident that the architect ought to possess the qualifications both of the painter and the sculptor; and the power of combining the theories of art with scientific excellence. This is not, however, generally understood - nor is it generally known that the profession of an architect is separate and distinct from that of the builder; and that the latter is dependent on the architect for the higher qualities that adorn his works.

Architecture, which embraces every feature relating to the home, is both an art and a science; or rather, is a science over which art presides: the knowledge required is derived from so extensive a field of study as necessarily to make the attainment extremely difficult, and the application of these to practice is of a no less arduous nature: hence the Greeks, who understood the art, distinguished the architect from the builder. To him the design was entrusted, and the executive parts were perdeveloped under others, but subject to his inspection and control as it is now with us. He was an artist ofthe first class-skilled in design and all the principles of lineal composition-professedly a sculptor, and a painter in every qualification, except in indeed, what is called handling or treatment of the material-for a thorough knowledge of the arrangement of colour is essential to his pursuit.

Such ought to be the architect, endowed with a capacious grasp of mind-full of imagination, extensively versed in the mathematics, in the principles of art and science, and practically an artist. Not so the builder: the demand made on his time by the execution of the detail is imperative for all that he can bestow upon them; the purchase and arrangement of materials) the government of many work-people, the financial cares and his calculations in matters which involve either profit or loss, fill up every moment of his leisure, and leave him no time to devote to the depths of study, or the theories of art. Thus it will appear that architecture in the correct sense of the word, is "less dependant on physical than intellectual skill ;" and that the architect is he only, who is absolutely an artist in his profession, and that the builder's duties belong to the execution alone.

Milton's use of the term architect, as quoted by Dr. Johnson, is figurative, and implies creative power in its highest signification, it would indeed have partaken of the bathos if it had held none higher than those of the bricklayer or mason; and Sir Henry Wotton, himself an artist, defines the architect to be "a professor of the art of building," as he would have defined the builder "a professor of the science of building."These observations are made as essential to the object of the work, as stated in the preface-for until the public discriminate between the labours of the mind and those of the hand - between works of mere imagination and those of sound judgement, every bricklayer, carpenter or mason, will assume the distinction due only to the artist; nay, every man will become "his own architect:"at least few will doubt his qualifications for the task, so long as he remains unconvinced of his folly.

This mistake in the public mind, and possibly the consequent suspicion of architectural capacity in England, has given encouragement to a practice of adopting the edifices of the ancients for all places and for all purposes, and which is not only repugnant to good taste, but to ordinary sense, and has allowed the privileges of the architect (only so by his powers as an artist and scientific superiority) to any workman who will "abandon his mind" to pilfer from Stuart or Degodez, and who will shamelessly condescend to pile up or crowd together the product of his larcenies, and call upon the world to admire his ingenuity in doing so.

Improved knowledge and better taste will not long yield to such delusions. Let our architects, who have the opportunity, by the execution of public works display the powers they possess, in a few real and legitimate works of art, founded on the principles that have been the objects of their research, and architectural felony will cease to be; because the public will no longer allow themselves to be the dupes ot artifice, and the deluded receivers of stolen goods.




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