International Styles

Applying Enamel Coatings

Application of Enamel to the Article

The article is then immersed in the enamel bath. Great care is taken to have the enamel evenly distributed by turning the article in many positions, so that all parts of it will be thoroughly covered; otherwise the coating would not be satisfactory. This seemingly simple operation requires skilled workers.

As said before, white ware is always coated more than once; the best variety has three coats. Any ware that is white inside or white all over is first given a ground coat and then two coats of enamel. The cheaper white ware has only one additional coat.

If a combination of colors, such as blue and white, or green and white, is desired, the article is given one or more coats of one color and then while still wet the other color is applied, with the result that the two merge.

The articles are then dried thoroughly.


The next step is known as fusing, a process which causes the firm adherence of the enamel to the article. The articles are placed in steel frames and run into muffle furnaces which are either red-hot or almost white-hot. The time required to cause perfect fusing varies from one to three or four minutes. The articles are then withdrawn and gradually cooled.

If the articles have only a single coat of enamel, they are now finished. When dipped twice, or three or four times, the fusing is repeated after every coat of enamel.


In the case of pans or other such simple utensils, the articles are then inspected, labeled, and shipped. In the case of more complicated utensils, such as kettles, coffee-pots, etc., covers are fitted, and bails or handles attached.

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