Applying Enamel Coatings
Application of Enamel to the Article
The article is then immersed in the enamel bath. Great care is
taken to have the enamel evenly distributed by turning the article
in many positions, so that all parts of it will be thoroughly covered;
otherwise the coating would not be satisfactory. This seemingly
simple operation requires skilled workers.
As said before, white ware is always coated more than once; the
best variety has three coats. Any ware that is white inside or white
all over is first given a ground coat and then two coats of enamel.
The cheaper white ware has only one additional coat.
If a combination of colors, such as blue and white, or green and
white, is desired, the article is given one or more coats of one
color and then while still wet the other color is applied, with
the result that the two merge.
The articles are then dried thoroughly.
The next step is known as fusing, a process which causes the firm
adherence of the enamel to the article. The articles are placed
in steel frames and run into muffle furnaces which are either red-hot
or almost white-hot. The time required to cause perfect fusing varies
from one to three or four minutes. The articles are then withdrawn
and gradually cooled.
If the articles have only a single coat of enamel, they are now
finished. When dipped twice, or three or four times, the fusing
is repeated after every coat of enamel.
In the case of pans or other such simple utensils, the articles
are then inspected, labeled, and shipped. In the case of more complicated
utensils, such as kettles, coffee-pots, etc., covers are fitted,
and bails or handles attached.